Text : Artificial Human Organs
Bionics is a fusion of biology and electronics. Biologists and electronic engineers put their knowledge together to design devices that resemble and can replace body organs. The term first came into use in the 1960s but bionic devices that have existed for ages.
Modern bionics especially interested in devices that are substitudes for body organs lost through accident or that function badly due to infection or genetic disorders.
In 1934, the first artificial heart and lung machine started operating. As a bionic device, it was used as a temporary substitude while the patient was in surgery or under short-term treatment.
Another bionic device was the artificial heart valve. This is a synthetic replacement for malfunctionning heart valves. The electric " pacemake" was the next bionic achievement. It is a gadget implanted in the body to facilitate the beating of an ailing heart.
In 1954, the first open heart surgery was carried out in Minnesota, USA, by Dr C.W. Lillehei. The patient was operated upon while blood was supplied to him directly from a donor.
In 1983, a team of doctors at the University of Utah Medical Centre, USA replaced the heart of Dr Barney Clark with a mechanical one. He amazingly managed to survive 112 days after the operation.
Recent progress in electronics has enable scientists to develop an artificial eye in which signals are transmitted into light patterns that are sent into nerve receptors in the patient.
Though a young science, the future of bionics is both promising and exciting. Definitely, existing bionic devices will be perfected to smaller, faster and more efficient ones. The success in replacing Dr B. Clark's heart will trigger the fabrication of other devices lik bionic livers, stomachs, lungs and kidneys.
Then, hopefully, patients who, for religious, ethical reasons, do not or cannot receive these vital organs from other animals or humans might be better served.
From : "Applied science", Short Reading in science, By Dean Curry, 1988.
II. Guided Commentary
Answer the the following question.
- According, to the text, what is a bionic device ?
- Basing on the text why do doctors resort to artificial organs ?
- According to you what is the most important organ among those quoted in the text ? Justify your view point .
- Relying on the text what shows that there is a hope of producing new artificial organs ?
III. Correction of the activity
- According to the test a bionic device comes from the combination of biology and electronics and which function like and naturel organ.
- Basing on the text doctors resort to artificial organ because of the impossibility to treat some organs which are damaged by an accident or an infection a genetic disorder.
- Basing on the text, Doctor B. Clark's heart shows that there is a hope for producing new artificiel organs.
- In your opinion, is it good to refuse a medical treatment because of a religions belief ?